NET National Eligibility Test

NET (National Eligibility Test)

What is NET (National Eligibility Test)

NET (National Eligibility Test) is conducted by CBSE for following programmes and post. It is conducted to determine eligibility criteria for Assistant Professor in Indian Universities and Colleges and for Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) for pursuing research in the subjects of post-graduation.

The universities, institutions, IITs and other national organizations may select the JRF awardees for whole time research work in accordance with the procedure prescribed by them.

The award of JRF and Eligibility for Assistant Professor both OR Eligibility for Assistant Professor only will depend on the performance of the candidate in all three papers of NET. However, the candidates qualifying exclusively for Assistant Professor will not be considered for award of JRF.

Job Post: Join the Panel of Bloggers at

Job Post would like to invite Tutors/Students/Parents/Professionals to join our esteemed panel of Writers/Bloggers. The Writers/Bloggers who like to be Part of  MyTrustedTutor.Com and get their article published on our website can mail their article to us and we will publish the same with due credit to the Writer/Blogger. Our email id is . is a marketplace to find Home Tutors and Private Tutors and is based in Mumbai.

Over the years, has built the name for providing Expert Tutors in one’s locality swiftly. There has been request from Students and Parents community to read extensively about different Exams and courses. We do offer wide-range of educational services and we are currently accepting articles for the following subjects:

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Fresh Graduates and Soft Skills: An Interplay

Soft Skills

Students studying science, technology, engineering or mathematics require soft skills to excel in their respective fields. Soft skills are pertinent in any career, be it technical or semi-technical in nature.

A recent survey highlighted that 83% of Indian Engineering graduates are unfit for employment. This fact has been brought to light in a National Employability Survey report 2012.

The NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Services Companies) survey of 2011 has highlighted that 75% of IT graduates are not ready for taking up professional responsibilities immediately on graduation.

It further elaborated how India’s US$60 bn. outsourcing industry is spending around US$1 bn. a year training fresh graduates to measure up to the standard required by their industry.

Eminent people from the industry like Ms Sangeeta Gupta, Senior Vice President, Nasscom said, “Our engineers are not unemployable, they just do not have industry ready talent. In other words, they lack the skills required for the jobs available to them.”

When probed further, she says that they lack communication skills, confidence, presentation skills, problem solving skills and generic abilities. Aspiring Minds, an employee assessment service provider, has further laid bare the sad lack of grammar and language skills among 50% of fresh graduates.

Another agency, PurpleLeap has reported that the above situation is prevalent in graduates passing out from graduation colleges in metros. However, in tier 2, tier 3 and tier 4 towns, the situation is even worst. Here the graduates were not ready even after interventional training.

Amit Bansal, CEO of PurpleLeap further goes on to say that “Most graduates have excellent theoretical knowledge. But, when it comes to problem-solving, they are lacking.”

He further goes on to elaborate that he had interviewed 2,000 candidates in the last 3 years and found that most of them struggled to reply to questions even in their mother tongue. He says, this happened because they lack the skills to find out the answer. If they do not know the answer, how will they answer?

Here, one may ask what are the skills that are lacking among students, which are making them unemployable? Given here are 5 very important soft skills which every student must be imparted with in order to be employment worthy.

Communication Skills

With liberalization in 1991, foreign companies came to India and the language of business changed. However, our education systems and processes have not changed in keeping with the changing business environment. In order to succeed in the professional ecosystem today, every individual needs to be able to communicate effectively both to internal and external customers.

Fresh graduates need to imbibe the customer facing qualities that the services sector values so highly. Today, just having technical skills is not enough. It is necessary to be able to communicate the knowledge that you have and let your customer know that you are capable of providing the level of service desired by him.

Team Work

Today projects have become more complex. This calls for teamwork on the part of all professionals, whether they are technical or non-technical.

cf-quotes-3Although, technical professionals are not often brought into the limelight because of the nature of their work, at times, it becomes necessary for them to perform managerial duties, when their bosses are not available.

In order to perform such duties, they need to have the quality of teamwork. Those who have this quality will be able to climb to higher ranks in organizations while others will lag behind. Teamwork will allow them to be noticed by their customers.

Presentation Skills

As elaborated above, technical professionals today also need to give presentations of their ideas and theories to a group of people, whether they are their bosses or their customers. For this, they need to master the skill of making effective presentations.

In making such presentations, they should be aware that technical jargon should be reserved with the people well versed with the same. Their presentations should be in a language, which suits their audience. In other words, they should be able to present complex ideas in an easy-to-understand manner.

In doing this they also need to master the art of public speaking, which will help them communicate to a large gathering.

Negotiation Skills

Organizations today wish to cut costs of their product manufacturing processes and services. In keeping with this, they hire professionals, which fit their budgets.

In such a situation, if a professional is good and deserves better remuneration than he is drawing, then he will be able to demand for it only if first, he knows his worth and second he has good negotiation skills.

This skill of negotiation is also useful when a professional climbs up the rungs of the corporate ladder. Apart from this, negotiation skills will also allow a professional to be able to reconcile his thoughts about the technical advancement of the organization, to the people who matter.

Leadership Skills

Due to the current state of education in our country, many professionals have an incorrect understanding of what an effective managerial style is. Additionally, their lack of leadership skills training during their student days compounds the problem.

This makes them managers who either micro-manage or employ a totally hands off approach.  In order to understand better the different styles of management, it is necessary for fresh graduates to invest in soft skills.

keep-calm-and-use-your-soft-skillsIn order to lead their subordinates in an effective manner, they need to have good leadership skills along with the knowledge of managing people effectively. Technical professionals can become good managers only if they learn the art of man-management.

As business processes and functions in India, benchmark their standards to reflect those prevalent in foreign countries, it has become necessary to provide all fresh graduates whether they are engineers or ordinary graduates with soft skills in order to take up professional responsibilities.

With the service sector contributing more to the GDP and ITes sectors creating more employment, students need to get accustomed to the soft skill levels required for employment in multi-national organizations, which are doing business in India. India can compete with the developed world only if its fresh graduates have good soft skills.

Contributed by Mr. Harish Desai

Tutor with

Importance of History: An Academic View

Studying History

This article elaborates why studying and pursuing history from an academic perspective is important and enriching. Read on for more info.

All the subjects that are taught in school have certain contribution in the upbringing of children. Even then, some of the subjects are simply ignored by students while studying. Student generally, adds such subjects in the category of being “boring”.

History is among one of them. Most students dislike this subject because they believe it does not contain any logic, according to them one just needs to spit out the names of famous dead people and specific dates in it.

Actually children don’t understand the real importance of history in their life. History plays a greater role in understanding society. It tells us about important past events that helps us to shape present society. It helps us to understand the changes that happened in past but which in turn, affected our present, future.

Take an example of invention of Telephone by Alexander Gram Bell, which is till today is so useful and is so common and have become part of household as it makes communication so easy and quick.

History moreover, helps us to be a better human being. It gives us a better understanding of world and teaches us certain lessons from past events. It makes us aware as not to repeat mistakes that our ancestors did.

There are always a bunch of students in each class who simply love to study history as it serves as folklore to them. They connect their own lives to it and inspire themselves.

Such children really get amused after reading a single chapter of history and start thinking about it by applying their own imagination to it. They also find a sense of identity in historical events as history helps them know where they belonged to.

So in order to make history more interesting, it should be personified, it should be multicultural.  It would help children at the time of studying history as then they could relate history to themselves and understand the mythological and past events more clearly.

Jaspreet Kaur

Some tutors of History, at different academic levels on MyTrustedTutor:

Jothi Sunil can be contacted HERE.

Darshana Ravindran can be contacted HERE.

Riddhi Jhaveri can be contacted HERE.

Raina Champawat can be contacted HERE.

A Career in Journalism: Finding the Apt College

Journalism Career

This article is an insight into the journalism career and gives ready advice about choosing the right college with specific criteria. Read on.

Waiting to choose the best Journalism school for a great career?

Here in this article, lists some of the reputed Journalism colleges in the country, in alphabetical order, giving you the freedom to choose your preferred university for your education.

Journalism has grown many folds in the recent years. With more individuals entering the industry every day, the academic sector is taking a keen interest in inculcating journalism as a course in many universities.

Journalism and Mass Communication courses have emerged as a major area of interest and have immensely contributed to the development & empowerment of society.  As an academic discipline, it has rapidly acquired importance and become a major attraction for students.

Pursuing a Journalism degree from a reputed college prepares you to step into the world of journalism.  A degree in Journalism can involve study in a multitude of types of reporting, including Print, Broadcast and New Media.

Choosing one’s specialization allows a student to find a niche within the journalistic community and helps one to prepare better for the same.

The degree allows journalism students to develop an area of reporting expertise and keep abreast of new technology, as well as open up new career opportunities and increase earning potential.

So, are you considering a career in Journalism?  If yes, find out about different journalism colleges in India from and make a confirmed decision. 

Asian College of Journalism, Chennai

Located in Chennai, the programme offered at Asian College Of Journalism enables aspiring young media persons to cope up with the demands by understanding “How to” and “Why” aspects in Journalism.

Divided in three terms, the 11-month long Post Graduate Diploma course contain the most basic requirement of journalism in the form of writing and editing along with training in other media like radio, television and new media.

Admission process: ​Stage – I: Entrance Exam, Stage – II: Personal Interview

Duration : 11 months

Degree : Postgraduate Diploma + MA in Journalism from Cardiff University

The website can be accessed HERE.

AJ Kidwai Mass Comm Research centre, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

AJK MCRC is premium institution recognized globally in the field of mass communication. MCRC was established in collaboration with Canadian International Development Aid Agency (CIDA), Toronto and York University.

The Centre continues to work within this broad mandate while regularly updates its courses to meet the growing challenges of contemporary media.

MCRC offers highest standard of media education and training with a professionally and academically accomplished faculty and a broad spectrum of visiting professionals.

Admission process: Stage – I: Entrance Exam, Stage – II: Personal Interview

Duration: Two Years

Degree: M.A. in Mass Communication, M.A. in Convergent Journalism

The website can be accessed HERE.

Indian Institute of Journalism and New Media, Bangalore

The Indian Institute of Journalism & New Media (IIJNM) is one of South Asia’s leading post-graduate schools of journalism and media aims to educate students in a broad range of practical skills and concepts involving the gathering, editing and presentation of information, and prepare them for a career in journalism.

The curriculum has been developed in association with Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, New York.

While there is a strong emphasis on the “craft” of journalism, the curriculum is designed to help students draw on and supplement their basic education so they are better equipped to handle intelligently the fundamental issues of the day.

Admission process:  Completion and submission of application form, On-line written test on general knowledge/current affairs, a personal interview (in person or by telephone)

Duration: 11 months

Degrees: PG Diploma Print (Newspaper Magazine), PG Diploma Broadcast (Television & Radio), PG Diploma Online/Multimedia

The website can be accessed HERE.

 Indian Institute of Mass Communication, New Delhi

IIMC considers communication as an imperative for development and is committed to serving society by providing world class teaching, training and research, thus preparing students to take on the challenges of a highly competitive world.

IIMC training programmes have been tailored to meet the needs of developing countries and this is what makes IIMC different from other centres of mass communication training in this country and elsewhere.

IIMC enjoys pride of place in mass communication education, training and research. The syllabi are reviewed every year to make changes and suitable modifications to make them relevant to the needs of the industry.

Admission process: Stage – I: Entrance Exam, Stage – II: Personal Interview

Duration: 11 Months

Degree: Diplomas in English Journalism, Hindi Journalism, Advertising and Public Relations, Radio and Television Journalism

The website can be accessed HERE.

School of Communication, Manipal

Established in 1997, School of Communication (SOC) is one of the premiere institutes for communication, media and journalism with international acclaim, in the state of Karnataka.

According to an India Today survey 2012, SOC is ranked number one in the factual ranking among communication colleges in India. It is also ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 14001:2004 certified.

Keeping up with the changing trends and needs in the media industry, from 201, the course – B.A Journalism and Communication has been renamed as B.A Media and Communication.

School of Communication has collaborations with Hochschule Bremen University of Applied Sciences, Bremen, Germany, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen, The Netherlands, and many more universities abroad.

Admission Process: Stage I – Manipal University Online Entrance Test (MU-OET) 2015, Stage II – GD/PI

Duration: 2 years

Degree: Masters in Media and Communication

The website can be accessed HERE.

Symbiosis Institute of Media and Communication, Pune

SIMC is a premier Media & Communication School nurturing and developing future leaders in the field of Journalism. The institute offers a full time post graduate degree programmes in Mass Communication with specialization in Journalism and Audio-Visual Communication.

SIMC takes pride in its advanced curriculum, focused delivery, expert faculty, hand-picked students and facilitating industry interaction.  For an institute that began with mass communication as its forte, the journalism course at SIMC is one of the most evolved.

Individuals are also trained with world-class equipment leading to technical specialization in Audio-visual communication. SIMC’s infrastructure allows students seeking careers in audio-visual communication a chance to bend some rules and break others.

Admission process:  Stage – I – Apply for SNAP, Stage – II – Apply to SIMC-Pune, Stage – III – Interview

Duration: 2 years

Degrees: Masters in Mass Communication – Journalism + Audio/Visual

The website can be accessed HERE.   

Times School of Journalism, New Delhi

The Times School of Journalism was started by the Times Group in 1990. Situated in the national capital, the school has world class facilities for their students.

The year-long full-time PG Diploma programme in Journalism in English offered by Times School of Journalism (TSJ) is consists of class-room training and hands-on practical training at news rooms across various Times Group and other media companies.

Journalists from various arenas interact with students and help them pave their ways into this field.

Admission process: Stage I – Entrance Exam, Stage II – Interview

Duration: 12 months

Degree: Post graduate Diploma in Journalism

The website can be accessed HERE.

Xavier Institute of Communication, Mumbai

The institute provides 10 months full-time, Post-Graduate Advanced Diploma Programme. It examines the principles, practice and responsibility of communication and the convergence of print, broadcast and on-line journalism in the era of the New Media.

The course equips and enables the students for diverse skills and tasks in mass communication and social interactions. The course comprises 18 Modules, Electives, Workshops and Seminars.

Admission process: Stage – I: Entrance Exam, Stage – II: Personal Interview

Duration: 1 year

Degree: Diploma in Journalism and Mass Communication

The website can be accessed HERE.

So get started on your search today!  Choose your college, and take the first step towards a bright career.

Arundhati Sarkar

Is Open Learning still a refuge for Average Scorers: Defending the System


Dipti Desai, a class XII student of Ruparel College, scored 75% in her Board Exams. Her parents wanted her to pursue medicine, as she liked nursing people very much. However, she wanted to pursue the nursing profession.

Since both could not agree on Dipti’s future, and because she did not have the required marks in her 12th standard board exams in order to pursue a professional course, she was very disillusioned. That was when her friend Neha, suggested taking admission to the School of Open Learning in Delhi.

Neha, on her part, secured 96% in her 12th standard exams and unlike Dipti, she wanted to pursue medicine. She could have easily got admission in a medical college of her choice, but she opted for the School of Open Learning because along with her education, she wanted to do a stint with her father, who was a doctor.

She wanted practical experience while she was pursuing her education. Dipti was surprised when she heard Neha speak out her plans. She laughed at her and ridiculed her. However, Neha knew what she was doing.

The School of Open Learning in Delhi has graduated from being an option for those who do not get admission in University colleges of their choice, to the most attractive option for the futuristic generation. It is slowly and gradually revolutionizing distance education in the country.

This was corroborated by Dr. Pokhriyal, Executive Director, SOL. He said the response to his school was improving year on year and it had grown from being regarded as a last resort for those who do not do well in their Class 12th exams, to the preferred option for generation next.

What is Open Learning?

Open Learning is also called as Distance Education. Distance Education or distance learning comprises education of students who are not physically present at the school.

There are blended courses, which are conducted partly through distance education and partly through classroom training. A recent development is the MOOCs or Massive Open Online Courses, which offer opportunities to access the courses through the World Wide Web or other contemporary network technologies.

A number of other terms have been coined to describe the different forms of education through the web namely distributed learning, online learning or e learning. Although, these are offered through the web, but they are modifications of distance learning.

The earliest attempts at providing distance education was made by Caleb Phillips, teacher of the new method of short hand, who sought students who were ready to learn from weekly mailed lessons. In contemporary times, Sir Isaac Pitman provided the first distance education course in the year 1940.

He taught his system of short hand by mailing lessons written on postcards. This scheme incorporated student feedback, which proved crucial to the system.

This system could be made possible because of the uniform postage rates across England in the year 1840. Later, it was the Phonographic Correspondence Society, which established the Sir Isaac Pitman colleges across the country to teach the course.

Today, we have open universities offering distance education. Open Universities are those universities, which are open to all types of students irrespective of formal qualifications. These offer distance education using specific media.

They offer a host of undergraduate and postgraduate courses apart from non-degree diplomas and certificates. They are the catalysts of furthering higher education in adults.

Open universities also offer certain services for disabled students and people studying at their home/workplace at their own speed. Here it will be pertinent to mention that not all distance-learning universities have the same policies. Therefore, it is best to verify the policies of an institute before taking admission in it.

Some Open Universities

The Open University system offers many advantages. An open learning university admits all kinds of people whether they are working professionals or students. They admit people irrespective of age and educational background.

They also prove useful for people who come from poor backgrounds. An open university enables a person to study the course of his choice, at his pace, in the setting he decides and thus improve his status in society.

The Indira Gandhi National Open University, formed in 1985, is a very good example of an open university. The Sikkim Manipal University also is another good example of an open university.

The IGNOU (Indira Gandhi National Open University) is the 5th largest university across the globe and it can be considered to be the pioneer of distance education in India. With as many as nine hundred and sixty centers across the country, it can cater to the needs of students across the whole country.

The Sikkim Manipal University or the SMU also imparts numerous courses at the graduate and undergraduate levels through distance education mode. Experienced and qualified professionals create the course content at both the above open universities.

There are other open universities too namely the Annamalai University, Nalanda Open University, Osmania University, etc. which offer courses in different subjects.


Thus, looking at examples like Dipti Desai and Neha Sharma, we can say that open universities are here to stay in India. This new channel of imparting knowledge to underprivileged children and working professionals has created a niche for itself in society so much so that a number of youngsters are opting for taking education through them.

They pursue a course through an open university and at the same time, they work in that field. Thus, they enjoy the best of both the theoretical and the practical world.

By the time, they complete their course, they gain valuable experience in the field of their choice and are then ready to launch out full-fledged into the field.

Truly speaking, open universities have revolutionized the way knowledge is imparted to students today. With the advancement in technology, we will soon have people studying on their laptops or tablets using the internet channel.

Already a number of major open universities conduct online classes for their students. Thus, OPEN UNIVERSITIES ARE NO LONGER  A REFUGE FOR AVERAGE SCORERS.

Harish Desai

Image from HERE.

Importance of Questions and Doubts in Academics

Questions are slippery things, with an energy of their own! The ways we ask them shape the answers we get.

If you are thinking of getting a tutor, there are certain question you need to ask yourself and then the tutor you plan to appoint. Asking the right questions helps clear doubts can make all the difference in choosing a teacher.

Tutoring is a growing profession today. Currently, there are over 2 Lacs people practicing tutoring in Mumbai and sub-urbs. It is indeed a challenging task to find the right teacher from the many.

Before deciding which tutor is the best fit for your child, you should make it a point to interrogate and know certain things. Asking questions before the appointment of a tutor is extremely crucial to build a fair understanding between the tutor and the parents of the students.

With a little planning, you can easily slim down your choices and make sure your child gets what’s necessary. When dealing with a tutoring company, you expect and trust it to hire the right person for your child.

Be sure you agree with the company’s thinking and if otherwise, do not hesitate to gain clarity on thoughts.  As a parent you have the right to know how much say you have in selecting a tutor and how the company regulates what is appropriate for your child.

In the occasions when the tutor is not available, will your child be assigned with a substitute?

If you’ve chosen an online portal for your tutoring service for example My trusted, ask in which language the classes will be delivered and also the hours of classes.

You should make it a point to ask how the tutor plans to build a rapport with your child and become familiar with the textbooks and assignments.

Next thing you should know is the tutor’s qualifications. Does he have experience teaching the subject your child needs help with?

If the tutor hold enough experience in teaching children of similar ages. If your child has special needs, the tutor should be properly trained to take lessons.

With asking the above question, request for evidences of the tutor’s success from the portal concerned in raising student achievement. You should know where the sessions will take place.

In the case of online tutoring, make sure your child has access to necessary equipment and the teacher should be comfortable with them.

How many students will be tutored at a time? If the teacher provides group tutoring, find out what is the maximum number of students per session. Ask the method the teacher will adopt to devise a study plan that’s right for the child.

Develop a routine to discuss the progress with the tutor. Policy for cancellations and makeup sessions should be discussed before the appointment. The above mentioned dialogues will help in achieving better result.

Arundhati Sarkar

IBPS (Institute of Banking Personnel) Common Written Exam

IBPS Common Written Exam

The IBPS (Institute of Banking Personnel) is one of the leading banking sector exam in India, nearly 1.5 crore students appear for this Common Written Exam (CWE) every year.

The IBPS holds various exams as PO exam, RRB Exam, Clerk Exam & SO Exam to fill the vacancies at various public, private, co-operative and rural banks in and around the states of India.

The Common Written Examination (CWE) is tend to be crucial form of exam in banking industry, because it is expected to recruit the valid candidate for the different posts of Clerks, Probationary Officers, Management Trainees and Specialist Officers through an entry level aptitude exam in two levels as preliminary and followed by main examination and based upon the score card the common Interview process goes for the candidate selection.

Examination process

IBPS exam process involves in two stages of Common Written Exam & Interview. Those successful candidates who clear the both stages will be selected for the job.

Furthermore, from 2015 the CWE includes two levels of exams as Preliminary and Mains examination for the PO exam and IBPS clerk exams. Only those candidates who qualify the Preliminary exam will appear for the mains exam and followed by personal Interview. The mode of applying the application is done through Online.

Exam                         Level 1                             Level 2           Common Interview
IBPS PO Exam          Preliminary                       Mains                              Interview
IBPS Clerk Exam     Preliminary                       Mains                              Interview
IBPS RRB Exam              –                                      CWE                                Interview
IBPS SO Exam                 –                                      CWE                                Interview

Common Written Exam (CWE) syllabus

IBPS 2015 exam syllabus comprises of subjects General Awareness, Reasoning, English/ Hindi Language, Quantitative Aptitude/Numerical Ability/Data Interpretation, Computer Knowledge, Professional Knowledge. For each of the exams patterns and subjects may have slight changes. So before applying for the exams, candidates have to ensure his particular syllabus from the official notification.

The exam is conducted for 200 marks at the duration of 2 to 2.30 Hours. IBPS exam is an Objective type exam where the candidates have to choose the valid answer from the choices. For every wrong answer 0.25 marks will be deducted from the total score and for the non-attended questions no marks will be deducted.

Interview process

The IBPS department will conduct the Interview process for those candidates who pass the CWE exam and they will be invited for the interview at various centers and provisional letter will be provided.

IBPS Preparation

Most of the candidate stops their knowledge up to the level knowing about the exam details and selection processes. In fact the participants fail to make effective preparations for their exams. So, how to prepare for IBPS bank exams? Here, simplified way of study plan wills makes your preparation easier and help you to crack the IBPS exam.

The candidates who looks for the banking industry jobs are expected to have surplus of general knowledge related to finance sector, banking sectors and more on aptitude. Added, the candidates should also possess basic skills in Computer Knowledge and English Comprehension skills. To make IBPS exam, a piece of cake here you’ll find simple tips for each of the subjects as you roll on.


The reasoning is one of the important subjects that play a major role in most of the competitive exams and banking as well. Also that allows you to score good marks to push your overall score as well.

The reasoning ideology is expected from the candidates at this section and this part consumes less time, since most of the questions are comprehensive type and paragraph solving puzzles. So focus on Comprehension Reasoning, Making series / analogy, Coding and de-coding, Problem Solving, Passage and conclusions type questions, Number Series, etc.

General knowledge

To crack the GK section it may be necessary that you read newspaper daily to update with the current issues and daily events. The GK paper holds questions related to current affairs of baking sector and related articles and policies. So focus on RBI, Banking terms, Abbreviations , Marketing, Awards & honors, finance, history of Banking, current affairs of recent issues etc.

English/ Hindi Language

The both English and Hindi subjects is to test your language knowledge and you can choose any one of the subject as major. This part is a good scoring part in IBPS exam where the candidates who are not clear with basics of English can take Hindi and those who have good skill in English can score well in exam.

So the candidates should focus on Comprehension Passage, Fill in the Blanks, phrases and idioms, Sentence Improvement, Spotting Error Questions, and Preposition etc.

Computer Knowledge

At this digital age the computer knowledge is necessary for everyone, in such case this is added as an additional subject in IBPS exam. The examiner tests basics skills in Internet and computer. So it is mandatory that the candidate have enough knowledge on computer as it gives equal weightage to the exam.

So the topics to focus on are Generations of computer, Input & Output Device, Basic of Computers, Basic internet knowledge and protocols, Network basics, MS word, MS Excel, MS power point, Computer Shortcuts etc.

Follow the given tips for the IBPS and before all, don’t ever forget to design a proper planning is very much important for any exams. So have a better understanding on each topic, also give more concentration over weak subjects to crack the exam easily. After each of your preparation don’t forget to have mock tests, that will give you an experience and importantly helps to find you mistakes and timings.

All the Best!

Dani Dissosa

Some tutors who can help you with banking competitive exams:

R.B. Joshi can be contacted HERE.

Sanjit Saha can be contacted HERE.

Jayant Kulkarni can be contacted HERE.

Article on Right to Education: Part Two

Right to Education

This article penned by Neeati Narayan is an original insight into right to education which was implemented in India and has been able to uplift many.

The previous post on Right to Education (click HERE) introduced the basic concept, the international perspective, historical context and the current enactments.

As promised, this post shall elucidate further on the actual provisions of the RTE Act, along with the stark realities and some independent recommendations to the scheme. It shall also explain basic case laws which framed the current view as it stands today.

Provisions of the Act

  1. It is the right of children to avail compulsory and free educational till elementary level in a school of their neighbourhood.
  2. Clarification was provided with respect to the meaning and context of compulsory education. It is meant to be understood as the duty imposed on the proper governmental authorities to provide basic education (inclusive of mandatory attendance after admission) to every child within the age bracket of six to fourteen. Nothing, including the inability to pay for such education, is supposed to prevent children from pursuing it.
  3. The duties, responsibilities and powers of the requisite authorities operating under the appropriate government is clearly specified in terms of such educational rights.
  4. The statutory norms relating to “Pupil Teacher ratio”, infrastructure, academic calendar have been laid down in specific terms.
  5. It further lays down the process of screening, selection and appointment of teachers with the required qualifications.
  6. Going with the drive against corporal punishment, measures of enforcing physical punishment and mental persecution have been specifically prohibited.
  7. Substantive guidelines relating to the directional measures for making the curriculum in tune with the ideologies behind Constitution have also been provided. The agenda is holistic development of the pupils under the aegis and supervision of the requisite official authority.
  8. Provisions relating to private schools state:

All private schools shall be required to enroll children from weaker sections and disadvantaged communities in their incoming class to the extent of 25% of their enrolment, by simple random selection. No seats in this quota can be left vacant. These children will be treated on par with all the other children in the school and subsidized by the State at the rate of average per learner costs in the government schools.

3923_2011-03-16_12-07-22Landmark court judgments

Judgments are the judicial pronouncements made in specific cases which go on to constitute case laws and help in interpreting the statutory provisions.

The first case which should be elucidated is the landmark judgment of Mohini Jain v. Union of India (1992) 3 SCC 666 wherein the judiciary recognised right to education as a fundamental right, in the spirit of the Constitution. The Right to Life established under Article 21 was deemed to be an all embracing provision to contain all rights and privileges which are basic in nature and required to live one’s life with dignity. The right to education was held to be part and parcel of an individual’s dignity and it was further deemed that the state is under an ongoing responsibility to develop educational infrastructure for partaking edification to its citizens.

The judicial development made through the aforementioned judgment was intrusively narrowed down in J P Unnikrishnan vs. State of Andhra Pradesh, 1993 SCC (1) 645. The Supreme Court (apex court of the land) stated that the right to education is in the same bracket as that of a directive policy of a State and not entirely enforceable due to the limitations posed by the economic infrastructure of Indian state.

However, this narrow view has not been in current practice as the judiciary has time and against reinforced the importance and context of Right to Education as a basic right. As recent as 2012, in Society for Un-Aided Private Schools in Rajasthan vs. Union of India, Supreme Court dismissed the claims of private schools which challenged the validity of the Right to Education Act, 2010. It upheld the importance and validity of the Act as a whole.


  1. The social initiative bargained for, by virtue of the provision of “free and compulsory” education has not exactly been fulfilled. The constitutional provision of Article 21A has been deemed to not include minority schools within its purview and they have the right to charge any amount of tuition fees and set any admission criteria without being answerable to the judiciary.
  2. The state of education has not improved any better than after the enactment of Right to Education Act. The literacy rate has grown but it has done so at a very slow pace.
  3. There is also an undeniable fact that the pupil to teacher ratio is not maintained at the lower end, which results in a distracted class with less to no productivity.
  4. Furthermore, poor parents are forced to remove children from the schools in order to get them employed and for them to contribute to the household expenses.
  5. There is an acute shortage of teachers, a figure that range up to 3 Lacs. The existing teachers themselves are not aptly trained or are completely untrained.


  1. Companies, under the new and compulsory regime of Corporate Social Responsibility (through Companies Act, 2013) may spend their earnings on such social initiative. The funds can be spent by the companies to improve the educational and training standards for pupils and teachers, respectively.
  2. There should be increased initiative on behalf of private institutions that can help the public schools by providing their experience and skills to improve the academic level.
  3. Classes may be held in shifts for the students representing economically weaker sections of the society so that they may develop and learn at a similar pace to their better off counterparts.


Neeati Narayan

Difficulty in Studying Masters Abroad in Humanities Stream

Studying Masters Abroad

Most of the top sought-after Universities for Humanities are in the USA and the UK. While considering applying for any Masters programme in humanities in these countries, the guidelines are very different from those in India. These may also apply for other European and English speaking countries.

A Masters programme is usually more demanding and intensive than an undergraduate course. It requires readiness to take the plunge into intensive study and hard-work.

Most programmes need the applicants to, as King’s College London puts it, “have a definite career path in mind and a strong view of how doing the MA would aid it.” Usually, the statement of purpose (SoP) and writing sample in the application are of most interest to the admissions committee. A few programmes may feel that some promising students do not do well on standardized tests and so pay less attention to GRE scores.

The cost of living may not be easily affordable for many students. Hence, some programmes may offer merit-based partial/full tuition scholarships. It is obvious that Humanities doesn’t get funding from the Government as much as other fields such as Engineering and Medical Sciences.

A major portion of funding for Humanities students comes from academic institutions (fig. 1). So there is a lot of competition for the limited resource. Additionally, international students may not be employable part-time due to visa restrictions.

Besides, Indian high school students are increasingly aware of the various opportunities in Humanities. Surveys have indicated the shift of preference of higher education from traditional fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Medicine to humanities. Though this comes as a welcome change, it only means two words – “more competition”.

These are some elementary reasons why maybe difficult to pursue a Masters in humanities outside India.

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Common Proficiency Test (CPT Syllabus) for CA Entrance



One Paper, Two Sessions                                                        200 Marks

Session I:

Section A: Fundamentals of Accounting                                  60 Marks

Section B: Mercantile Laws                                                           40 Marks

Session II:

Section C: General Economics                                                      50 Marks

Section D: Quantitative Aptitude                                                 50 Marks

Common Proficiency Test (CPT)

(One paper – Four hours – 200 Marks)

Level of Knowledge: Basic knowledge


(Two Sections– Two hours – 100 Marks)

Section A: Fundamentals of Accounting ( 60 Marks )


To develop conceptual understanding of the fundamentals of financial accounting system.


Theoretical Framework 

  • Meaning and Scope of accounting
  • Accounting Concepts, Principles and Conventions
  • Accounting Standards – concepts, objectives, benefits
  • Accounting Policies
  • Accounting as a measurement discipline – valuation principles, accounting estimates
  1. Accounting Process

Books of Accounts leading to the preparation of Trial Balance, Capital and revenue expenditures, Capital and revenue receipts, Contingent assets and contingent liabilities, Fundamental errors including rectifications thereof.

  1. Bank Reconciliation Statement
  1. Inventories

Basis of inventory valuation and record keeping.

  1. Depreciation accounting

Methods, computation and accounting treatment of depreciation, Change in depreciation methods. 

  1. Preparation of Final Accounts for Sole Proprietors
  1. 7. Accounting for Special Transactions
  • Consignments
  • Joint Ventures
  • Bills of exchange and promissory notes
  • Sale of goods on approval or return basis.
  1. Partnership Accounts

Final accounts of partnership firms – Basic concepts of admission, retirement and death of a partner including treatment of goodwill.

  1. Introduction to Company Accounts

Issue of shares and debentures, forfeiture of shares, re-issue of forfeited shares, redemption of preference shares.

Section B: Mercantile Laws ( 40 Marks )


To test the general comprehension of elements of mercantile law


  1. The Indian Contract Act , 1872: An overview of Sections 1 to 75 covering the general nature of contract , consideration , other essential elements of a valid contract , performance of contract and breach of contract.
  1. The Sale of Goods Act, 1930: Formation of the contract of sale – Conditions and Warranties – Transfer of ownership and delivery of goods – Unpaid seller and his rights.
  1. The India Partnership Act, 1932: General Nature of Partnership – Rights and duties of partners – Registration and dissolution of a firm.


(Two Sections– Two hours – 100 Marks)

Section C: General Economics ( 50 Marks )


To  ensure  basic  understanding  of  economic  systems,  economic  behaviour  of  individuals  and



  • Micro Economics
  1. Introduction to Micro Economics
  • Definition, scope and nature of Economics
  • Methods of economic study
  • Central problems of an economy and Production possibilities curve.
  1. Theory of Demand and Supply
  • Meaning and determinants of demand, Law of demand and Elasticity of demand ─ Price, income and cross elasticity
  • Theory of consumer ’s behaviour – Marshallian approach and Indifference curve approach
  • Meaning and determinants of supply, Law of supply and Elasticity of supply.
  1. Theory of Production and Cost
  • Meaning and Factors of production
  • Laws of Production – The Law of variable proportions and Laws of returns to scale
  • Concepts of Costs ─ Short-run and long-run costs, Average and marginal costs, Total, fixed and variable costs.
  1. Price Determination in Different Markets
  • Various forms of markets – Perfect Competition, Monopoly, Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly
  • Price determination in these markets.

(II) Indian Economic Development 5. Indian Economy – A Profile

(a) Nature of the Indian Economy

(b) Role of different sectors – Agriculture, Industry and Services in the development of the Indian economy, their problems and growth

(c) National Income of India – Concepts of national income, Different methods of measuring national income, Growth of national income and per capita income in various plans.

(d) Basic understanding of tax system of India – Direct and Indirect Taxation

  1. Select Aspects of Indian Economy

(a) Population – Its size, rate of growth and its implication for growth

(b) Poverty – Absolute and relative poverty and main programs for poverty alleviation

(c) Unemployment – Types, causes and incidence of unemployment

(d) Infrastructure ─ Energy, Transportation, Communication, Health and Education

(e) Inflation

(f) Budget and Fiscal deficits

(g) Balance of payments

(h) External debts.

  1. Economic Reforms in India

(a) Features of economic reforms since 1991

(b) Liberalisation, Privatisation and Disinvestment

(c) Globalisation.

  1. Money and Banking

(a) Money – Meaning and functions

(b) Commercial Banks – Role and functions

(c) Reserve Bank of India – Role and functions, Monetary policy.

Section D: Quantitative Aptitude ( 50 Marks )


To test the grasp of elementary concepts in Mathematics and Statistics and application of the same as useful quantitative tools.


  1. Ratio and proportion, Indices, Logarithms
  1. Equations

Linear – simultaneous linear equations up to three variables, quadratic and cubic equations in one variable, equations of a straight line, intersection of straight lines, graphical solution to linear equations.

  1. Inequalities

Graphs of inequalities in two variables ─ common region.

  1. Simple and Compound Interest including annuity ─ Applications
  1. Basic concepts of Permutations and Combinations
  1. Sequence and Series – Arithmetic and geometric progressions
  1. Sets, Functions and Relations
  1. Limits and Continuity ─ Intuitive Approach
  1. Basic concepts of Differential and Integral Calculus (excluding trigonometric functions)
  1. Statistical description of data
  • Textual, Tabular & Diagrammatic representation of data.
  • Frequency Distribution.
  • Graphical representation of frequency distribution – Histogram, Frequency Polygon, Ogive
  1. Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion

Arithmetic Mean, Median – Partition Values, Mode, Geometric Mean and Harmonic, Mean, Standard deviation, Quartile deviation

  1. Correlation and Regression
  1. Probability and Expected Value by Mathematical Expectation
  1. Theoretical Distributions

Binomial, Poisson and Normal.

  1. Sampling Theory

Basic Principles of sampling theory , Comparison between sample survey and complete enumeration , Errors in sample survey , Some important terms associated with sampling , Types of sampling , Theory of estimation , Determination of sample size .

  1. Index Numbers

Courtsesy and Source:

The best CA tutors in Mumbai:

Dinesh Kapadia (19 years of experience) can be contacted HERE.

Sachin Naik (18 years of experience) can be contacted HERE.

Sanjiv Barve (13 years of experience) can be contacted HERE.

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How to Verify Credentials @

It is mandatory for Tutor to verify credentials at

To verify credentialS you can submit:

  • Identity proof;
  • Address proof; and
  • Educational certificate

facebook-verifiedWhy is verifying credentials important?

Frankly speaking, we know it is a pain to send Identity proof and address proof. You will ask, are you a government organization or at times you will be apprehensive about misuse.

But, on the other side of Table think about those students or parents. Students want to study or parents wants to put their children in secure hands, they don’t want to fall victims to fraudulent means.

You are going to build future for them. Its a small exercise but it shows the level of trust and commitments from your side.

Further we have observed that in 90% of case, genuine teacher never had problem in verifying credentials. It’s just a stepping stone to build high level of trust.

Why do you need educational certificates?

credentials_logoYour reply will be are you schools or providing jobs? No, we aren’t but a genuine person has nothing to hide or conceal.

People need to have full proof knowledge of what they are investing in, it is good market practice and it is just a small measure in order to get reliable clients.

Yes, its a pain to find record of last several years, but sometime its worth doing.

When we receive these documents, it shows that you want to work long term with us and frankly speaking we also like to work with teacher like you.

Hope you understand its a one-time exercise and worth-doing. Sending credential is very easy and convenient. You can do it from any of options mentioned below:

  1. Email us at
  2. Whatsapp at 9987587591
  3. Upload in directly from your Tutor Account
  4. Send through Post/Courier in Office address

Hope you will understand its importance and will soon do it, if you have not done already!

How to make your Tutor Profile attractive @

At, You have to continuously work on your Tutor Profile and make it attractive to get high visibility.

Now you may be wondering, how do I do it?

profile-tips1Login account of and complete your profile or you can email or SMS/ Call/ Whatsapp at 9987587591 to update your profile.

A. Personal Information: Visit your Tutor Profile and check whether you have your updated Email ID, Mobile Number, Alternate Number and Landline Number, City

B. Basic Profile: Upload Photo (high resolution), Date of Birth, Address and About Me ( brief about yourself).

In case, you need any assistance to write about yourself, email us at or Call/SMS/Whatsapp at 9987587591

C: Manage Subject: Its highly important that you should correctly update your preferred Board, Grade/Level and Subjects you teach to get relevant enquiry from

D: Preferred Area: Do select all locations and areas where you want to take tuition. This will help you in getting relevant Tuition enquiries from us.

E: Qualification: Up date all educational qualification starting from Graduation degree, Post-Graduation degree, any Diploma or Certification you have done.

If you don’t find any degree, diploma or certificate in options do write to us at

F: Preferred Time: Correctly update time and days when you are free to take new tuition assignment. This will help in getting relevant tuition requirements.

10-Ways-to-Make-Your-Online-Profile-Look-Attractive-to-Recruiters-1G. Fee Structure: Do mention what fees you charge on a monthly basis or on hourly or on course fee basis.

This provides a tentative idea, as most of the tuition gets stuck due to pricing issues. Correct details will save your precious little time.

G: Upload Documents: You can upload your credentials like photo ID, Address Proof, and Educational Certificates, so that your profile gets verified and you get higher ranking.

H. Testimonial: We will love to read your testimonials and the level of trust you have shown in us.

Once all the above things are updated, it will make your profile complete and will get higher visibility, Ranking and higher Tuition opportunities.

In case you want us to update, write to us at or SMS/Whatsapp/call at 9987587591

Wish you all the Best!!

Welcome to Make the Best Of This!

You have chosen “Teaching” either you love Teaching, or passionate about it, or want to supplement income or it could be bread and butter for you.

We at would like to build a long-term and rewarding relationships for all stakeholders i.e. Tutors, Students or Parents and as a platform.

You may have whole lot of questions to understand:

Visit HERE to understand general query. There are certain pre-requites like:

  1. Profile Completion is mandatory 
  2. Credential Verification is mandatory 
  3. Acceptance of Revenue Sharing Structure is mandatory

(To understand SMS/Whatsapp/Call at 9987587591 or email at

You will still have questions like:

1. How the process at works?

Once your Profile gets completed, credential gets verified and you accept the pricing structure.

You will start receiving SMS notifications, Email notifications or you can check from My Account page about the relevant Tuition Enquiry.

If interested for any enquiry SMS/Whatsapp at 9987587591 Tuition Code or email at, once we receive your Tuition code, your Tutor profile details are shared with Students/Parents and their contact information is shared with you.

You can talk to Students/Parents and can share feedback with us. (Tips: We don’t encourage you to send details through SMS or whatsapp, as has already shared Tutor information with Students/Parents. As per our experience 90% of students/parents will not respond to your SMS.)

Please note that all tuition enquiries are shared with Tutor only after Enquiry verification from Students/Parents.

As per policy of a single enquiry is shared to only few teachers (i.e. 3 to 5 tutors) initially.

2. How to approach Students/Parents?

First Call between Students/Parents and Teachers is very important and critical, it sets the tone for future engagement.

Teachers should try to understand exact and specific requirements of students/parents i.e. where student is facing problem and why he/she is looking for tutor.

Try to know requirement, locations, and timing/days. There will be questions from students/parents, where do you reside, how long you are teaching, have you taught earlier. What’s your style of teaching, how much do you charge?

Be prepared for all your questions, be clear with all your answers and query, it sounds odd that you are the Tutor, how can Parents/Students ask so much.

Try to understand, it’s the future of student. Infact they are trying to become confident and comfortable and trying to ascertain, whether you are the “Right Tutor” or not

Many a time, it will happen that Student/Parent will not be able to talk, so ask suitable time or drop a message. Many of them will like to meet personally and discuss or directly decide about Demo Class.

So, get prepared for the same. Fix meeting date, after discussing mutual convenience and if you charge for Demo, make it clear beforehand.

3. Should Tuition Fee be communicated in First Call?

There is no right or wrong answer. If you have understood requirements, locations and timings of tuition assignment, you can communicate Tuition Fee.

Discussing Fee without understanding requirements are suicidal, as you don’t know exactly what is their specific requirement. You don’t know how much time and cost will be incurred in travelling.

Try to understand requirement in detail and try to ascertain students parents expectations. If students, parents are convinced, go for Demo/ trial class.

It’s your decision to tell fees now, try to understand student availability too. Don’t commit if you cannot fulfil, else you are going to earn brownie points from

Visit again to know answers of all these questions:

  1. How much to charge for Tuition Fees?
  2. How much to charge for Demo class and what topics to cover and duration of demo class?

Do share your experiences with us at or post in comment

Looking for your feedback!

Article on Right to Education: Part One

Right to Education

This article penned by Neeati Narayan is an original insight into right to education which was implemented in India and has been able to uplift many.


There is a positive context of the word “right”. It is a power or privilege possessed by either a natural person or corporate body, amongst other applicable categories.

downloadSuch rights are either natural in nature (as enunciated by John Locke) or may be deferred and statutory in nature. They can also be a blend of the abovementioned parameters. One such basic human right is the “right to life”, which finds space in most of the global treaties and covenants (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, European Convention on Human Rights), as well as the constitutions of several developed jurisdictions including United States of America, Canada, France and India.

Article 21 of the Indian Constitution establishes the right to life and introduces the concept of “procedure established by law”, the only exception to this otherwise far-reaching legal right. The right to education comes within this broad bracket and an all embracing right. The journey of evolution of a statutorily and constitutionally recognized “Right to Education” was not an easy one.

Historical Context

There were many battles fought, many arguments won and many debates executed. The differences in views arose due to opposing sociological and philosophical schools of thought.

The right to edification was contemplated upon by the great drafters of the Constitution at the preliminary drafting stage. The original “Constituent Sub-Committee” on Fundamental Rights had proposed this particular right to be find place within the protected ambit of fundamental rights. However, the subsequent Advisory Committee, bestowed with the powers to review and modify the original submissions, categorically discarded such drafts. The duty of “accessible education” was put on the state machinery under the heading of Directive Principles of State Policy (enshrined within Part IV of the Constitution). These set of rights are not enforceable in any court of law, as compared to the fundamental rights. These were the state of things until the first voices of discrepancy were heard from independent advisory committees set up.

One such committee was the Acharya Ramamurti Committee in 1990, which proposed the right to education to be formally recognised and accepted as essential rights. Thereafter, a trend shift was witnessed wherein it became imperative to seriously deliberate on this issue of global concern.

International Perspective

The national political and public policy domain was influenced highly by the growing international sensitization of a similar issue. Mandatory and complimentary basic education became a fully fledged social agenda around this time following India’s involvement in the “World Conference for All”.

International covenants, agreements and treatises have also been imperative in shaping the face of educational rights in India. A definite mention of the United Nations Convention on Rights of the Child should be made at this time which was sanctioned by India in 1992. It contains the substantive right within Articles 28, 29 and 40.

The right to education is also protected by the likes of internationally ratified instruments such as:

  1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (within Article 26)
  2. International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (within Articles 13 and 14)
  3. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (within Article 5)
  4. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women(within Articles 10 and 14)
  5. American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man (within Article 12)

It also finds place in the general comments (which serve as addendum / expansive deliberation for certain Articles within such international instruments). It was discussed by the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights under “General Comment 13″ and The United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child under “General Comment 1″.

Final Outcome

This brings us to discussing the developments of the last decade: something which has shaped the laws into their current enforecable forms. The 86th amendment of the Constitution, which took place in 2002, has been deemed to be a giant leap for the social integrity of the country. The Parliament, law making organ of the country, passed the amendment which enshrined the “Right to Education” within Fundamental Rights. The bare act of the same reads as follows:

“The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.”

This amendment brought forth a social revolution with numerous drafts and comments being circulated to establish a proper legal framework for educational rights. A whole statute was required to be dedicated for chalking out a substantive legislative plan of action and the same was brought into force in August 2009, when the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act was passed by both Houses of Parliament.

The specific provisions, tangible outcomes and the challenges (with scope of modification) will be discussed in the next post (published HERE).



Neeati Narayan

What To Do After Class 10: Some Brilliant Career Options

After Class 10 : Finding the Right Fit!

Abhinav Kadambi, in this helpful article, names different career options which can be opted for after Class 10. Read on for more information.

Every year, there are a number of students who complete their class X, but are confused when considering what stream they would like to pursue.

The stream chosen in class X is what will help a student find the best career after graduating from school. Traditionally, Medicine, Chartered Accountancy and Engineering have been default options.

But now, winds of change are slowly blowing and students have begun finding their niches in other fields. One primary reason is the increasing awareness in the minds of the children and their parents regarding different career options available in contemporary times.

There are three different streams that a student can choose from after class X:

  1. Arts/Humanities
  2. Science
  3. Commerce

Each stream has a specific set of subjects that form the core.

In the Arts/Humanities stream, languages, both Indian and foreign; and subjects in social sciences such as geography, history, political science, psychology and sociology are offered. Career opportunities in this field cover a very broad range of which some are in archaeology, anthropology, arts, literature (both translations and original), law and journalism.

Moreover, as many of these subjects also form the skeleton of the syllabus for Civil Service Examinations, this stream would be highly recommended for those who aim to be administrators and representatives of our nation.

after-class-10Even if one’s career options are not related to these subjects, as the subjects majorly deal with human behaviour, the subjects never lose relevance throughout the life of the student.

In the Commerce stream, subjects covered are those related to economics and mathematics, i.e. accountancy, business studies, economics, informatics practices and mathematics.

Heavily saturated with mathematical subjects, this enables one to eventually find a career in banking, accountancy, business studies and economic advisory boards.

Recent developments in the country have also aided in moulding students as entrepreneurs. This stream, hence, never ceases to amaze us with its immeasurable potential.

The Science stream is perhaps the most familiar stream for students of modern times. Subjects covered are biology, biotechnology, chemistry, computer science, mathematics and physics. Conventionally, students of this stream eventually end up as engineers and medical doctors.

However, the much-ignored careers which are based on this stream include those of architects and scientists. Most importantly, several departments of the Government, both civil and military, are currently in the need for experienced and enthusiastic science graduates for research and general purposes.

This is one means of serving the country. As scientific discoveries and inventions are ever increasing, careers in Science and Technology are also highly competitive.

For those interested in multiple subjects from different streams, some Boards of Education, such as the CBSE, come to the rescue. They offer elective courses which the interested student can pick from the same or a different stream.

Additionally, for those who have not proceeded beyond class X or have had a break in their studies after class X, Open Schooling institutions provide ample opportunities for academic progress.

It is recommended that subject streams be chosen based on the student’s interest and long-term career goals and not simply based on ‘following the herd’ mentality. To conclude, different streams in class X offer equal opportunities for students to pursue a career in any profession.

Abhinav Kadambi

Law as a Career Option and CLAT

Law, as a career option, has seen a massive shift of reception in the recent years. In the previous decades, it was deemed to be the lowest of the low back up options. One pursued the LLB course, which spanned 3 years after a graduate course, only if they had no other strategy left to make a living out of legal means.

However, the trend shift from the 1990s has been spectacular and has generated a whole lot of positive reception in terms of career prospects and payback.

Some universities and colleges date back almost a century and the list includes Aligarh Muslim University, Government Law College, ILS Law College and Faculty of Law, Delhi University. Centers of modern education such as most of the National Law Universities (NLSIU, NLIU, NALSAR), Symbiosis Law School etc. have taken over the legal landscape only in the 1980s and later.

It was with NLSIU Bangalore that the 5 year law course was introduced as a method of experimentation and revolution in legal education. The idea was to save one extra year that a student would have to otherwise waste in a 3+3 year study model (3 years for the undergraduate course and a furth3 years for the LLB course) and instead offer a composite degree of B.A.LL.B. that spanned only 5 years. The undergraduate subjects were later expanded to include BBA, B.Com, B.Sc.

Until 2008, the prestigious national law universities and the private universities had separate entrance exams for each of such avenues. A student had to independently apply to each such university and write different exams. Common Law Admission Test (CLAT) was introduced in 2008 and, as the name suggests, was a common entrance test to the national law universities with the exception of NLU Delhi and the private schools.

As of 2015, 16 national law universities accept admissions subject to competing CLAT and acquiring an admissible rank in the test. The top schools like NLSIU, NALSAR, NUJS, NLIU and NLU Jodhpur receive the crème de la crème of the rankers.

The law schools (as ranked by different magazines and grading mechanisms) offer their pupils the infrastructure to hone their academic, co-curricular and extracurricular skills. There are several career options available to a law student who diligently maintains a sound academic and achievement profile.

Mostly, the colleges offer “placements” to students in reputed law firms of the country depending on the choice area of interest and pay-package. The Big 6 firms (ranked as per RSG40 and other forums) offer a starting package of around Rs. 13-16 Lacs. Apart from law firms, several companies also visit the campus in order to scope prospective employees in their “in-house” divisions. Such companies are highly reputed organisations with similar pay packages as their law firm counterparts. They include ICICI, WIPRO, Tech Mahindra etc.

Legal Process Outsourcing units also recruit heavily from campus placements. These are organisations which offer and outsource legal support to law firms. Such positions are not as popular as the abovementioned options but they act as dependable career options nevertheless. Apart from campus placements, the students may opt for off-campus options such as clinching pre-placement offers with the law firms and companies.

Some students prefer to sit for judicial services exams which are conducted by Law Service Commission and separate States for appointment as Magistrates and legal officers. As is true for any career option, diligence and hard work guarantees and reaps excellent benefits in future.

Many law students dream of entering the litigation field and arguing fancily in court rooms. To do the same, they need to enroll with their respective state bars and work under an experienced lawyer, who is open to teaching and bolstering their brief and practice.

A significant segment of graduates opt to study further and engage in the Masters of Law (LLM) programme, both abroad and within the country. Such studies may be undertaken in an effort to be eligible for practice in a foreign jurisdiction, honing individual specialisation, strengthening employment prospects within India and indulging in research or teaching. These further studies may be self funded or may be assisted through grants and scholarships.

Teaching attracts a small but significant portion of graduates who opt for further studies and qualifying exams and subsequent enrolment as assistant professors. A similar avenue is of research scholars.

At the same time, quite a few law graduates, who do not wish to practice law, appear for the civil services examinations. They have consistently performed well in such competitive exams. A tiny fraction of the graduates also opt for post graduate degrees in management and entrepreneurship.

In short, there is no shortage of career options for law graduates provided that the correct choices and decisions are made at the apt time. A student needs to identify his/her fitting place and work towards achieving that target.

Contributed by Neeati Narayan

The tutor for law entrance exam, Kaushal Arora can be contacted HERE.

Image from HERE.

How does CA change One’s life for good?

We have all been through the rigours of pursuing CA and we know how tough it is to handle various situations which need us to push our limits beyond our capabilities.

We can put forward several such examples to prove it like studying late night hours (burning the midnight oil), being dedicated to our task and putting all our efforts all throughout to clear the exams in the very next attempt, not getting time to have fun with friends and having a monotonous approach in life to achieve one goal to become a CA one day, sacrificing the best phase of our life and missing out on several family functions and festivals etc. The list is endless.

But, with all these we also start to develop certain traits over a period of time which always helps us when we are up against the odds which are not in our favour. Such traits can be determination to succeed, having a strong willpower to achieve the impossible, toiling hard to turn the tides in our favour, being passionate in life to achieve something etc. Even this list would be endless.

I have written this piece to put forward one such experience of my life pursuing CA which has helped me succeed in my goal when the situation was not in my favour.

It was back in January this year, when I found that I weighed way more than the optimum weight for my height and was in the 90’s mark on the weighing scale. I was absolutely shocked to see such drastic changes that had come in me in the past few months. The memories of those days when I weighed in the 70’s merely a few years back flashed back. But, those days were like a distant memory and I needed to think seriously of what could be possibly be done to get back to previous shape.

Due to my regular classes from morning to evening for the CA exams, it was a very busy schedule for me for the past few years and I found it very difficult to get time to maintain proper fitness. Though I always wanted to lose weight but, had never thought I would be in such a situation where it would become a tedious task. I am 5”10’, so I weighed way beyond the normal level and I needed to act soon. It was then I became a bit serious for my health and was more concerned for it. I was desperate to go for all sorts of alternatives to lose weight as fast as possible. But, as the saying goes, “NO PAIN, NO GAIN . But, having seen many tough circumstances in my life before, being in CA had filled me up with the self-confidence to achieve my goal of losing weight and coming back to the shape.

It was the first time when I decided to go for running on every evening. Initially it was very tiring as every day’s running would leave me drained out completely and it was very difficult to get back the strength needed to put same effort the very next day. But, somehow I managed to stick to it and made it a point to run each time the same distance that I had run the previous day in order to stay on track.

It was in January when I had started and gradually I found out that I was doing really well and was slowly attaining stamina as well. Slowly I increased my running distance to nearly 3 kms from 2 kms where I had begun. It was a regularly a half an hour effort and it made the day for me. Any single day missed would make me feel guilty and I would try not to miss any more day.

The major changes I found out were I felt less hungry, i.e. my appetite was on the mark, my stamina was improving, the desire to work out for more time was increasing slowly, I was consuming more water every day which was not the case before. But, more importantly I felt more alive after every run and it felt as if I was reborn.

One more thing adopted meanwhile was the way how I ate. I tried to chew each bite of food as much as possible to digest it properly. Doing so, it filled my stomach with way little food (nearly 1/3rd) compared to the way we normally eat. At first it was completely awkward but, with regular practice it became a habit and it surely has worked wonders for me.

The next time I was on the weighing machine, it was a loss of 2 kgs in just 2 weeks’ time. It was a pretty good start but, I knew I had a long way to go and needed to put more effort to be in the groove.

Gradually I tried to increase my running distance and a simultaneous increase in the speed as well and tried to cover up as much distance as possible within the half an hour time slot. With every run I felt what I had missed in the past and its necessity. The best part of running is that it burns more calories perhaps than any other outdoor exercise at par with swimming and it also has its after effects even after the run. I did my best not to miss any single day possible and tried to maintain my consistency and slowly it turned to quite an addiction. I was ready to run a day rather than miss any other occasion in place of it.

There were people who had pointed out at me when I was not serious about my weight and there was a time when people gave my example to others of how to maintain fitness.

Slowly I managed to increase the distance to 5 kms every day and it was a gradual increase in my efforts and were showing incredible results as well. I managed to lose about 5-6 kgs in a month and half effort. I was strict in my diet as wellJunk food was a serious ‘NO’, and I tried to consume which was low in calories and basically homemade but occasionally I munched onto something else.

I had decided to hit the 70 mark one day and as the margin dropped steadily, I stepped up my efforts. Slowly 8 kms everyday turned to be easy and I wasn’t fitting to my old jeans anymore. It was those moments which I had waited for so long. By that time it had been nearly 2.5 months when I had started it all and I was quite satisfied by how the things had panned out. I felt more energetic with every run and was relaxed a lot more than before. Finally the day arrived when I was no more in the 80’s but made it to the 79 mark and it felt incredible. By that time nearly everyone in the locality knew someone was running every day and was dropping weight real fast.

The desire to run more and more has kept me on the hunt and I weighed 72 a few days back. I will make it to the desired 70 mark one day and I still hit the road quite often. It has been a wonderful journey in the past 3-4 months and I have lost nearly 18kgs of weight just by maintaining a proper diet and by running every day. My waist size has also dropped from 36’ to 32’. The funny moments are when people fail to recognize the new changes that have come in me. It has made me more confident than before and most importantly I am contended that I did the right thing and did what was needed.

All this has been partly possible somewhat because of CA and today I find myself way more confident and strong when I was not a part of CA.

Contributed by Sanat Biswal, CA Finalist

P.S.: I am a CA finalist and you can reach me for your comments, feedbacks and suggestions if any. Hope to hear from you very soon.

The best CA tutors in Mumbai:

Dinesh Kapadia (19 years of experience) can be contacted HERE.

Sachin Naik (18 years of experience) can be contacted HERE.

Sanjiv Barve (13 years of experience) can be contacted HERE.

Education and Technology in the Contemporary World

The concept of Education itself has undergone fundamental changes in the past twenty years or so and technology can be called the single most important reason for it.

Digital knowledge is as basic as the alphabets now and is something the netizens (generation born and brought up in the technological era) have as an innate character.

Our analysis of technology weaved into modern day education brings us to two broad questions- What technology is available and what it does? How has the digital world ushered in a better world if at all?

To begin with, let us list out and discuss three broad branches of technology required and commonly used in the education system:

  1. Hardware- Surprising as it may seem selecting hardware for classroom teaching is no piece of cake. It requires careful research and planning especially financial estimates as funding is a long and tiresome process in most educational institutions in India. Essentials include basic computers, visual projectors, speakers, microphones, and in case of science laboratories, voltmeters, microscopes, weighing machines and a lot more are required.
  2. Software- This is the part that requires professional help for digital configurations tend to be important in the long run and large scale investments should last a long time. Moreover, gone are the days when Microsoft ruled the world of Operating Systems. Today with options like iOS and android even this requires some thinking though Microsoft is still popular but frequent updates may not be cost efficient. In choosing other softwares used for documentation and virtual creations, opting for the ones with free online updates would be a good idea.
  3. Network- If the machine is considered a separate social entity the network would be its soul. A device without connectivity is useless and even though metropolitan educational institutions now have internet access as a rule, that does not include more than 50% of the country. Internet connectivity is still a problem India is grappling with and hopefully with recent efforts made in tying up with major digital conglomerates the country will be able to bridge this gap. With internet we have the knowledge of the world at our fingertips so it is without doubt an indispensable tool of education.

Massive developments have been made over the years in making the World Wide Web a more student friendly platform and it is imperative that the teaching organization has a well researched plan to disseminate the benefits of this age to the upcoming generation.

This is especially true for school level children who can be moulded with proper guidance to use applications and visual media to expand their horizon of knowledge and give innovative ideas for a better future.

The combination of a durable machine, reliable software and the internet thus creates the ground for a nature of study that has innumerable sources, unimaginable tools of modification and a convenient user friendly interface to give commands that the machine converts to digital signals.

What technology has done to education is an interesting topic of discussion and has a wide scope of content. To the modern student it is information at just a click as long as he has access to the required hardware and software. A technical analysis of the impact of technology on education would reveal a mixed bag of pros and cons.

What it aids:

  1. Helps in assimilation of concepts and ideas deeper and wider than textbook reading or classroom lectures. Media files like audio-visuals, flow-charts, presentations give an encapsulated view of the subject and will appeal to a wider student audience.
    This in turn will help in wholesome classroom development as opposes to earlier when only ten in a class of fifty students paid attention and the rest turned out average on account of rote learning. This will ensure that the student will actually remember say scientific or political facts throughout his life leading to a better informed generation.
  2. Technological aids can cover topics faster and more efficiently. A chapter on metallurgy would take hours to memorize whereas a documentary of the process would take about half an hour. This saves the students’ time for other activities.
    It will enable them to acquire a diverse variety of knowledge in enough time. Thus in a world that is churning out new information by the second the student is already being taught optimization of time and its efficient utilization to aid creative production.
  3. Enhances mental faculties to extract valid information and thus buttresses the child’s powers of inquisition and research. The child is now capable of interpreting information and analyzing data. Data analysis and computation then becomes an additional skill, for the student taught in technology has been doing it all the time. This in the long run will increase employability and help achieve further progress in the workspace.
  4. The digital world has revolutionized communications, the most public examples being social media. For students growing in this era, there is ample scope for virtual exposure and thus building up professional relationships even when they are pursuing academics.
    Platforms like Facebook , Twitter, Skype, WordPress and the likes are increasingly being used by students in higher education to build their own opportunities, share make their achievements known to the world.

What it hampers:

  1. Memory: With the availability of information on the internet, mental storage of information is becoming less required. The web in other words serves as an extended memory. This in turn is narrowing down the ability of the human mind to remember, a not very healthy phenomenon among the younger generation.
  2. Composition skills are something that textbook reading and consequent writing as a practice enhances. Although devices like Kindle do encourage reading, the quality of the written word has degraded much on an average. Although this is not a major threat it still gives technological impact on education a slightly negative tint
  3. Social exclusivism: This is a major generation concern. The student population today is widely interconnected but has limited its interaction to the virtual world. Social media platforms are a blow on personal relationships if one limits oneself to such existence.

Having stated all aspects of digital education it is important to mention that as of today, the pros of electronic media in learning outweigh the cons and it is definitely here to stay.

Contributed by Pratyasha Ghosh

FAQs on Central Teacher Eligibility Test [CTET]

When is CTET Exam?

CTET Exam is on 21st Feb 2016 and 18th Sep 2016. Check detailed notification at

What are eligibility criteria of CTET?

We have extensively discussed eligibility criteria of CTET in the link mentioned:

What is the Standard book for preparing CTET?

CTET- Central Teachers Eligibility Test is conducted by CBSE, so it follows the syllabus and course content of NCERT. If you are thorough with the syllabus of CBSE and NCERT, you will not find the test difficult. You can check details of syllabus below:

Structure and Content of Syllabus of CTET (Paper I)

Structure and Content of Syllabus of CTET (Paper II)

Is it possible to prepare for CTET in 2 Months?

Syllabus of CTET- Central Teachers Eligibilty Test is vast and extensive. Test-takers should be thourogh with the course content and conceptual clarity for Paper I (teachers wishing to teach from Std I-Std V) and Paper II (teachers wishing to teach from Std VI to Std VIII).

If teachers are already teaching in CBSE schools or have done B.ed or taking tuitions for school students, their 50% preparation is already over. Just need to take mock paper and practice.

Always do check past papers. Teachers who are not into teaching, they have really work hard to understand course content, so need to put extra effort.

Though, test is not much difficult, but the pass percentage is mere 1-2% and for each test close to 10 Lacs teachers appear for it.
Check syllabus and CTET Test structure at:
What after qualifying CTET with good percentage?

CTET is just one of the eligibilty criteria for teachers recruitment in CBSE Board school, Government schools or schools being run by Government Bodies/Institutions.

Now a days, large number of private schools are also looking for CTET Certificate. CTET has been started in 2011 and certificate is valid for 7 years. The basic aim of CTET is to standardize teachers recruitment process across India.

Further, CTET test is taken by more than 10 Lacs teachers across India and pass percentage is mere 1-2%.

So, if you have qualified with good percentage, it means you fall in the bracket of few thousand teachers and chances of getting jobs in good private schools or Goverment School is very high. So, start visiting school website and start applying to school directly.

Few Unanswered Questions:

We invite our esteemed teachers to respond to these questions and share your experience with other teachers.

You can respond in comment section and it will be updated soon. You can ask more questions or queries, so that life of other teachers and yours become easier.

  • How do I get a teacher job in government schools after clearing the CTET exam?
  • What should I do to get a government teacher job?
  • How do I clear the CTET (teacher eligibility test) exam?
  • If I have done B.ed, is it still necessary to get CTET certificate to get school Job?
  • What is CTET, TET, B.ed, TGT, PGT?
  • When was B.Ed introduced in India?
If you have any questions or query write to us at or Whatsapp at 9987587591